 Problems for Chapter 2

Governing Equations of Solid Mechanics

2.1.  Mathematical Description of Shape Changes in Solids 2.1.1.      A thin film of material is deformed in simple shear during a plate impact experiment, as shown in the figure.

2.1.1.1.            Write down expressions for the displacement field in the film, in terms of ${x}_{1},{x}_{2}$ d and h, expressing your answer as components in the basis shown.

2.1.1.2.            Calculate the Lagrange strain tensor associated with the deformation, expressing your answer as components in the basis shown.

2.1.1.3.            Calculate the infinitesimal strain tensor for the deformation, expressing your answer as components in the basis shown.

2.1.1.4.            Find the principal values of the infinitesimal strain tensor, in terms of d and h

2.1.2.      Find a displacement field corresponding to a uniform infinitesimal strain field ${\epsilon }_{ij}$.  (Don’t make this hard $–$ in particular do not use the complicated approach described in Section 2.1.20.  Instead, think about what kind of function, when differentiated, gives a constant). Is the displacement unique?

2.1.3.      Find a formula for the displacement field that generates zero infinitesimal strain.

2.1.4.      Find a displacement field that corresponds to a uniform Lagrange strain tensor ${E}_{ij}$.  Is the displacement unique?   Find a formula for the most general displacement field that generates a uniform Lagrange strain. 2.1.5.      The displacement field in a homogeneous, isotropic circular shaft twisted through angle $\alpha$ at one end is given by

$\begin{array}{l}{u}_{1}={x}_{1}\left[\mathrm{cos}\left(\frac{\alpha {x}_{3}}{L}\right)-1\right]-{x}_{2}\mathrm{sin}\left(\frac{\alpha {x}_{3}}{L}\right)\\ {u}_{2}={x}_{1}\mathrm{sin}\left(\frac{\alpha {x}_{3}}{L}\right)+{x}_{2}\left[\mathrm{cos}\left(\frac{\alpha {x}_{3}}{L}\right)-1\right]\\ {u}_{3}=0\end{array}$

2.1.5.1.            Calculate the matrix of components of the deformation gradient tensor

2.1.5.2.            Calculate the matrix of components of the Lagrange strain tensor.  Is the strain tensor a function of ${x}_{3}$?  Why?

2.1.5.3.            Find an expression for the increase in length of a material fiber of initial length dl, which is on the outer surface of the cylinder and initially oriented in the ${e}_{3}$ direction.

2.1.5.4.            Show that material fibers initially oriented in the ${e}_{2}$ and ${e}_{2}$ directions do not change their length.

2.1.5.5.            Calculate the principal values and directions of the Lagrange strain tensor at the point ${x}_{1}=a,\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}{x}_{2}=0,\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}{x}_{3}=0$.  Hence, deduce the orientations of the material fibers that have the greatest and smallest increase in length.

2.1.5.6.            Calculate the components of the infinitesimal strain tensor.  Show that, for small values of $\alpha$, the infinitesimal strain tensor is identical to the Lagrange strain tensor, but for finite rotations the two measures of deformation differ.

2.1.5.7.            Use the infinitesimal strain tensor to obtain estimates for the lengths of material fibers initially oriented with the three basis vectors. Where is the error in this estimate greatest? How large can $\alpha$ be before the error in this estimate reaches 10%? 2.1.6.      To measure the in-plane deformation of a sheet of metal during a forming process, your managers place three small hardness indentations on the sheet.  Using a travelling microscope, they determine that the initial lengths of the sides of the triangle formed by the three indents are 1cm, 1cm, 1.414cm, as shown in the picture below.  After deformation, the sides have lengths 1.5cm, 2.0cm and 2.8cm.  Your managers would like to use this information to determine the in$—$plane components of the Lagrange strain tensor.  Unfortunately, being business economics graduates, they are unable to do this.

2.1.6.1.            Explain how the measurements can be used to determine ${E}_{11},\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}{E}_{22},\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}{E}_{12}$ and do the calculation.

2.1.6.2.            Is it possible to determine the deformation gradient from the measurements provided?  Why?  If not, what additional measurements would be required to determine the deformation gradient? 2.1.7.      To track the deformation in a slowly moving glacier, three survey stations are installed in the shape of an equilateral triangle, spaced 100m apart, as shown in the picture.  After a suitable period of time, the spacing between the three stations is measured again, and found to be 90m, 110m and 120m, as shown in the figure.  Assuming that the deformation of the glacier is homogeneous over the region spanned by the survey stations, please compute the components of the Lagrange strain tensor associated with this deformation, expressing your answer as components in the basis shown.

2.1.8.      Compose a limerick that will help you to remember the distinction between engineering shear strains and the formal (mathematical) definition of shear strain.

2.1.9.      A rigid body motion is a nonzero displacement field that does not distort any infinitesimal volume element within a solid.  Thus, a rigid body displacement induces no strain, and hence no stress, in the solid.  The deformation corresponding to a 3D rigid rotation about an axis through the origin is

$y=R\cdot x\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{or}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}{y}_{i}={R}_{ij}{x}_{j}$

where R must satisfy $R\cdot {R}^{T}={R}^{T}\cdot R=I$, det(R)>0.

2.1.9.1.            Show that the Lagrange strain associated with this deformation is zero.

2.1.9.2.            As a specific example, consider the deformation

$\left[\begin{array}{c}{y}_{1}\\ {y}_{2}\\ {y}_{3}\end{array}\right]=\left[\begin{array}{ccc}\mathrm{cos}\theta & -\mathrm{sin}\theta & 0\\ \mathrm{sin}\theta & \mathrm{cos}\theta & 0\\ 0& 0& 1\end{array}\right]\left[\begin{array}{c}{x}_{1}\\ {x}_{2}\\ {x}_{3}\end{array}\right]$

This is the displacement field caused by rotating a solid through an angle $\theta$ about the ${e}_{3}$ axis.  Find the deformation gradient for this displacement field, and show that the deformation gradient tensor is orthogonal, as predicted above.  Show also that the infinitesimal strain tensor for this displacement field is not generally zero, but is of order ${\theta }^{2}$ if $\theta$ is small.

2.1.9.3.            If the displacements are small, we can find a simpler representation for a rigid body displacement.  Consider a deformation of the form

$\text{\hspace{0.17em}}{y}_{i}={\in }_{ijk}{\omega }_{j}{x}_{k}$

Here $\omega$ is a vector with magnitude <<1, which represents an infinitesimal rotation about an axis parallel to $\omega$.  Show that the infinitesimal strain tensor associated with this displacement is always zero.   Show further that the Lagrange strain associated with this displacement field is

${E}_{ij}=\frac{1}{2}\left({\delta }_{ij}{\omega }_{k}{\omega }_{k}-{\omega }_{i}{\omega }_{j}\right)$

This is not, in general, zero.  It is small if all ${\omega }_{k}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}<<1$.

2.1.10.  The formula for the deformation due to a rotation through an angle $\theta$ about an axis parallel to a unit vector n that passes through the origin is

${y}_{i}=\left[\mathrm{cos}\theta {\delta }_{ij}+\left(1-\mathrm{cos}\theta \right){n}_{i}{n}_{j}+\mathrm{sin}\theta {\in }_{ikj}{n}_{k}\right]{x}_{j}$

2.1.10.1.        Calculate the components of corresponding deformation gradient

2.1.10.2.        Verify that the deformation gradient satisfies ${F}_{ik}{F}_{jk}={F}_{ki}{F}_{kj}={\delta }_{ij}$

2.1.10.3.        Find the components of the inverse of the deformation gradient

2.1.10.4.        Verify that both the Lagrange strain tensor and the Eulerian strain tensor are zero for this deformation.  What does this tell you about the distorsion of the material?

2.1.10.5.        Calculate the Jacobian of the deformation gradient.  What does this tell you about volume changes associated with the deformation? 2.1.11.  In Section 2.1.6 it was stated that the Eulerian strain tensor ${E}_{ij}^{*}$ can be used to relate the length of a material fiber in a deformable solid before and after deformation, using the formula

$\frac{{l}^{2}-{l}_{0}{}^{2}}{2{l}^{2}}={E}_{ij}^{*}{n}_{i}{n}_{j}$

where ${n}_{i}$ are the components of a unit vector parallel to the material fiber after deformation.

Derive this result.

2.1.12.  Suppose that you have measured the Lagrange strain tensor for a deformation, and wish to calculate the Eulerian strain tensor.  On purely physical grounds, do you think this is possible, without calculating the deformation gradient?  If so, find a formula relating Lagrange strain ${E}_{ij}$ to Eulerian strain ${E}_{ij}^{*}$.

2.1.13.  Repeat problem 2.1.6, but instead of calculating the Lagrange strain tensor, find the components of the Eulerian strain tensor ${E}_{ij}^{*}$ (you can do this directly, or use the results of problem 2.1.12, or both)

2.1.14.  Repeat problem 2.1.7, but instead of calculating the Lagrange strain tensor, find the components of the Eulerian strain tensor ${E}_{ij}^{*}$ (you can do this directly, or use the results for problem 2.1.12, or both)

2.1.15.  The Lagrange strain tensor can be used to calculate the change in angle between any two material fibers in a solid as the solid is deformed.  In this problem you will calculate the formula that can be used to do this.  To this end, consider two infinitesimal material fibers in the undeformed solid, which are characterized by vectors with components $d{x}_{i}^{\left(1\right)}={l}_{1}{m}_{i}^{\left(1\right)}$ and $d{x}_{i}^{\left(2\right)}={l}_{2}{m}_{i}^{\left(2\right)}$, where ${m}^{\left(1\right)}$ and  ${m}^{\left(2\right)}$ are two unit vectors.  Recall that the angle ${\theta }_{0}$ between  ${m}^{\left(1\right)}$ and ${m}^{\left(2\right)}$ before deformation can be calculated from $\mathrm{cos}{\theta }_{0}={m}_{i}^{\left(1\right)}{m}_{i}^{\left(2\right)}$.  Let $d{y}_{i}^{\left(1\right)}$ and $d{y}_{i}^{\left(2\right)}$ represent the two material fibers after deformation.  Show that the angle between $d{y}_{i}^{\left(1\right)}$ and $d{y}_{i}^{\left(2\right)}$ can be calculated from the formula

$\mathrm{cos}{\theta }_{1}=\frac{2{E}_{ij}{m}_{i}^{\left(1\right)}{m}_{j}^{\left(2\right)}+\mathrm{cos}{\theta }_{0}}{\sqrt{1+2{E}_{ij}{m}_{i}^{\left(1\right)}{m}_{j}^{\left(1\right)}}\sqrt{1+2{E}_{ij}{m}_{i}^{\left(2\right)}{m}_{j}^{\left(2\right)}}}$ 2.1.16.  Suppose that a solid is subjected to a sequence of two homogeneous deformations (i) a rigid rotation R, followed by (ii) an arbitrary homogeneous deformation F.  Taking the original configuration as reference, find formulas for the following deformation measures for the final configuration of the solid, in terms of F and R:

2.1.16.2.        The Left and Right Cauchy-Green deformation tensors

2.1.16.3.        The Lagrange strain

2.1.16.4.        The Eulerian strain.

2.1.17.  Repeat problem 2.1.16, but this time assume that the sequence of the two deformations is reversed, i.e. the solid is first subjected to an arbitrary homogeneous deformation F, and is subsequently subjected to a rigid rotation R. 2.1.18.  A spherical shell (see the figure) is made from an incompressible material.  In its undeformed state, the inner and outer radii of the shell are $A,B$.  After deformation, the new values are $a,b$.  The deformation in the shell can be described (in Cartesian components) by the equation

${y}_{i}={\left({R}^{3}+{a}^{3}-{A}^{3}\right)}^{1/3}\frac{{x}_{i}}{R}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}R=\sqrt{{x}_{k}{x}_{k}}$

2.1.18.1.         Calculate the components of the deformation gradient tensor

2.1.18.2.        Verify that the deformation is volume preserving

2.1.18.3.        Find the deformed length of an infinitesimal radial line that has initial length ${l}_{0}$, expressed as a function of R

2.1.18.4.        Find the deformed length of an infinitesimal circumferential line that has initial length ${l}_{0}$, expressed as a function of R

2.1.18.5.        Using the results of 2.1.18.3, 2.1.18.4, find the principal stretches for the deformation.

2.1.18.6.        Find the inverse of the deformation gradient, expressed as a function of ${y}_{i}$.  It is best to do this by working out a formula that enables you to calculate ${x}_{i}$ in terms of ${y}_{i}$ and $r=\sqrt{{y}_{i}{y}_{i}}$ and differentiate the result rather than to attempt to invert the result of 10.1.

2.1.19.  Suppose that the spherical shell described in Problem 2.1.18 is continuously expanding (visualize a balloon being inflated).  The rate of expansion can be characterized by the velocity ${v}_{a}=da/dt$ of the surface that lies at R=A in the undeformed cylinder.

2.1.19.1.        Calculate the velocity field ${v}_{i}=d{y}_{i}/dt$ in the sphere as a function of ${x}_{i}$

2.1.19.2.        Calculate the velocity field as a function of ${y}_{i}$ (there is a long, obvious way to do this and a quick, subtle way)

2.1.19.3.        Calculate the time derivative of the deformation gradient tensor calculated in 2.1.18.1.

2.1.19.4.        Calculate the components of the velocity gradient ${L}_{ij}=\frac{\partial {v}_{i}}{\partial {y}_{j}}$ by differentiating the result of 2.1.19.1

2.1.19.5.        Calculate the components of the velocity gradient using the results of 2.1.19.3 and 2.1.18.6

2.1.19.6.        Calculate the stretch rate tensor ${D}_{ij}$.  Verify that the result represents a volume preserving stretch rate field. 2.1.20.  Repeat Problem 2.1.18.1, 2.1.18.6 and all of 2.1.19, but this time solve the problem using spherical-polar coordinates, using the various formulas for vector and tensor operations given in Appendix E.   In this case, you may assume that a point with position $x=R{e}_{R}$ in the undeformed solid has position vector

$y={\left({R}^{3}+{a}^{3}-{A}^{3}\right)}^{1/3}{e}_{R}$

after deformation. 2.1.21.  An initially straight beam is bent into a circle with radius R as shown in the figure.  Material fibers that are perpendicular to the axis of the undeformed beam are assumed to remain perpendicular to the axis after deformation, and the beam’s thickness and the length of its axis are assumed to be unchanged.   Under these conditions the deformation can be described as

${y}_{1}=\left(R-{x}_{2}\right)\mathrm{sin}\left({x}_{1}/R\right)\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}{y}_{2}=R-\left(R-{x}_{2}\right)\mathrm{cos}\left({x}_{1}/R\right)$

where, as usual x is the position of a material particle in the undeformed beam, and y is the position of the same particle after deformation.

2.1.21.1.        Calculate the deformation gradient field in the beam, expressing your answer as a function of ${x}_{1},{x}_{2}$, and as components in the basis $\left\{{e}_{1},{e}_{2},{e}_{3}\right\}$ shown.

2.1.21.2.        Calculate the Lagrange strain field in the beam.

2.1.21.3.        Calculate the infinitesimal strain field in the beam.

2.1.21.4.        Compare the values of Lagrange strain and infinitesimal strain for two points that lie at $\left({x}_{1}=0,{x}_{2}=h\right)$ and $\left({x}_{1}=L,{x}_{2}=0\right)$.   Explain briefly the physical origin of the difference between the two strain measures at each point.   Recommend maximum allowable values of h/R and L/R for use of the infinitesimal strain measure in modeling beam deflections.

2.1.21.5.        Calculate the deformed length of an infinitesimal material fiber that has length ${l}_{0}$ and orientation ${e}_{1}$ in the undeformed beam.  Express your answer as a function of ${x}_{2}$.

2.1.21.6.        Calculate the change in length of an infinitesimal material fiber that has length ${l}_{0}$ and orientation ${e}_{2}$ in the undeformed beam.

2.1.21.7.        Show that the two material fibers described in 2.1.21.5 and 2.1.21.6 remain mutually perpendicular after deformation.   Is this true for all material fibers that are mutually perpendicular in the undeformed solid?

2.1.21.8.        Find the components in the basis $\left\{{e}_{1},{e}_{2},{e}_{3}\right\}$ of the Left and Right stretch tensors $U$ and $V$ as well as the rotation tensor $R$ for this deformation.  You should be able to write down $U$ and R by inspection, without needing to wade through the laborious general process outlined in Section 2.1.13.  The results can then be used to calculate $V$.

2.1.21.9.        Find the principal directions of $U$ as well as the principal stretches.  You should be able to write these down using your physical intuition without doing any tedious calculations.

2.1.21.10.     Let $\left\{{m}_{1},{m}_{2},{m}_{3}\right\}$ be a basis in which ${m}_{1}$ is parallel to the axis of the deformed beam, as shown in the figure.   Write down the components of each of the unit vectors ${m}_{i}$ in the basis $\left\{{e}_{1},{e}_{2},{e}_{3}\right\}$.  Hence, compute the transformation matrix ${Q}_{ij}={m}_{i}\cdot {e}_{j}$ that is used to transform tensor components from $\left\{{e}_{1},{e}_{2},{e}_{3}\right\}$ to $\left\{{m}_{1},{m}_{2},{m}_{3}\right\}$.

2.1.21.11.    Find the components of the deformation gradient tensor, Lagrange strain tensor, as well as $U$  $V$ and $R$ in the basis $\left\{{m}_{1},{m}_{2},{m}_{3}\right\}$.

2.1.21.12.    Find the principal directions of $V$ expressed as components in the basis $\left\{{m}_{1},{m}_{2},{m}_{3}\right\}$.  Again, you should be able to simply write down this result.

2.1.22.  A sheet of material is subjected to a two dimensional homogeneous deformation of the form

${y}_{1}={A}_{11}{x}_{1}+{A}_{12}{x}_{2}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}{y}_{2}={A}_{21}{x}_{1}+{A}_{22}{x}_{2}$ where ${A}_{ij}$ are constants.

Suppose that a circle of unit radius is drawn on the undeformed sheet.   This circle is distorted to a smooth curve on the deformed sheet.  Show that the distorted circle is an ellipse, with semi-axes that are parallel to the principal directions of the left stretch tensor V, and that the lengths of the semi-axes of the ellipse are equal to the principal stretches for the deformation.  There are many different ways to approach this calculation $–$ some are very involved.  The simplest way is probably to assume that the principal directions of V subtend an angle ${\theta }_{0}$ to the $\left\{{e}_{1},{e}_{2}\right\}$ basis as shown in the figure, write the polar decomposition $A=V\cdot R$ in terms of principal stretches ${\lambda }_{1},{\lambda }_{2}$ and ${\theta }_{0}$, and then show that $y=V\cdot R\cdot x$ (where $x$ is on the unit circle) describes an ellipse.

2.1.23.  A solid is subjected to a rigid rotation so that a unit vector a in the undeformed solid is rotated to a new orientation b.  Find a rotation tensor R that is consistent with this deformation, in terms of the components of a and b.   Is the rotation tensor unique?  If not, find the most general formula for the rotation tensor. 2.1.24.  In a plate impact experiment, a thin film of material with thickness h is subjected to a homogeneous shear deformation by displacing the upper surface of the film horizontally with a speed v.

2.1.24.1.        Write down the velocity field in the film

2.1.24.2.        Calculate the velocity gradient, the stretch rate and the spin rate

2.1.24.3.        Calculate the instantaneous angular velocity of a material fiber parallel to the ${e}_{2}$ direction in the film

2.1.24.4.        Calculate the instantaneous angular velocity of a material fiber parallel to $\left({e}_{1}+{e}_{2}\right)/\sqrt{2}$

2.1.24.5.        Calculate the stretch rates for the material fibers in 22.3 and 22.4

2.1.24.6.        What is the direction of the material fiber with the greatest angular velocity?  What is the direction of the material fiber with the greatest stretch rate?

2.1.25.  The velocity field $v$ due to a rigid rotation about an axis through the origin can be characterized by a skew tensor $W$ or an angular velocity vector $\omega$ defined so that

$v=W\cdot x\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}v=\omega ×x$

Find a formula relating the components of $W$ and $\omega$. (One way to approach this problem is to calculate a formula for W by taking the time derivative of Rodriguez formula $–$ see Sect 2.1.1). 2.1.26.  A single crystal deforms by shearing on a single active slip system as illustrated in the figure.  The crystal is loaded so that the slip direction $s$ and normal to the slip plane $m$ maintain a constant direction during the deformation

2.1.26.1.          Show that the deformation gradient can be expressed in terms of the components of the slip direction $s$ and the normal to the slip plane m as ${F}_{ij}={\delta }_{ij}+\gamma {s}_{i}{m}_{j}$ where $\gamma$ denotes the shear, as illustrated in the figure.

2.1.26.2.        Suppose shearing proceeds at some rate $\stackrel{˙}{\gamma }$.  At the instant when $\gamma =0$, calculate (i) the velocity gradient tensor; (ii) the stretch rate tensor and (iii) the spin tensor associated with the deformation.

2.1.27.  The properties of many rubbers and foams are specified by functions of the following invariants of the left Cauchy-Green deformation tensor ${B}_{ij}={F}_{ik}{F}_{jk}$.

$\begin{array}{l}{I}_{1}=\text{trace}\left(B\right)={B}_{kk}\\ {I}_{2}=\frac{1}{2}\left({I}_{1}^{2}-B\cdot \cdot B\right)=\frac{1}{2}\left({I}_{1}^{2}-{B}_{ik}{B}_{ki}\right)\\ {I}_{3}=\mathrm{det}B={J}^{2}\end{array}$

Invariants of a tensor are defined in Appendix B $–$ they are functions of the components of a tensor that are independent of the choice of basis.

2.1.27.1.        Verify that ${I}_{1},{I}_{2},{I}_{3}$ are invariants.  The simplest way to do this is to show that ${I}_{1},{I}_{2},{I}_{3}$ are unchanged during a change of basis.

2.1.27.2.        In order to calculate stress-strain relations for these materials, it is necessary to evaluate derivatives of the invariants.  Show that

$\frac{\partial {I}_{1}}{\partial {F}_{ij}}=2{F}_{ij},\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\frac{\partial {I}_{2}}{\partial {F}_{ij}}=2\left({I}_{1}{F}_{ij}-{B}_{ik}{F}_{kj}\right),\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\frac{\partial {I}_{3}}{\partial {F}_{ij}}=2{I}_{3}{F}_{ji}^{-1}$

2.1.28.  The infinitesimal strain field in a long cylinder containing a hole at its center is given by

${\epsilon }_{31}=-b{x}_{2}/{r}^{2}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}{\epsilon }_{32}=b{x}_{1}/{r}^{2}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}r=\sqrt{{x}_{1}^{2}+{x}_{2}^{2}}$

2.1.28.1.        Show that the strain field satisfies the equations of compatibility.

2.1.28.2.        Show that the strain field is consistent with a displacement field of the form ${u}_{3}=\theta$, where $\theta =2b{\mathrm{tan}}^{-1}{x}_{2}/{x}_{1}$.   Note that although the strain field is compatible, the displacement field is multiple valued $–$ i.e. the displacements are not equal at $\theta =2\pi$ and $\theta =0$, which supposedly represent the same point in the solid.  Surprisingly, displacement fields like this do exist in solids $–$ they are caused by dislocations in a crystal.  These are discussed in more detail in Sections 5.3.4 2.1.29.  The figure shows a test designed to measure the response of a polymer to large shear strains.  The sample is a hollow cylinder with internal radius ${a}_{0}$ and external radius ${a}_{1}$.  The inside diameter is bonded to a fixed rigid cylinder.  The external diameter is bonded inside a rigid tube, which is rotated through an angle $\alpha \left(t\right)$.  Assume that the specimen deforms as indicated in the figure, i.e. (a) cylindrical sections remain cylindrical; (b) no point in the specimen moves in the axial or radial directions; (c) that a  cylindrical element of material at radius $R$ rotates through angle $\varphi \left(R,t\right)$ about the axis of the specimen. Take the undeformed configuration as reference. Let $\left(R,\Theta ,Z\right)$ denote the cylindrical-polar coordinates of a material point in the reference configuration, and let $\left\{{e}_{R},{e}_{\Theta },{e}_{Z}\right\}$ be cylindrical-polar basis vectors at $\left(R,\Theta ,Z\right)$.  Let $\left(r,\theta ,z\right)$ denote the coordinates of this point in the deformed configuration, and let $\left\{{e}_{r},{e}_{\theta },{e}_{z}\right\}$ by cylindrical-polar basis vectors located at $\left(r,\theta ,z\right)$

2.1.29.1.        Write down expressions for  $\left(r,\theta ,z\right)$ in terms of $\left(R,\Theta ,Z\right)$ (this constitutes the deformation mapping)

2.1.29.2.        Let P denote the material point at at $\left(R,\Theta ,Z\right)$ in the reference configuration. Write down the reference position vector X of P, expressing your answer as components in the basis $\left\{{e}_{R},{e}_{\Theta },{e}_{Z}\right\}$.

2.1.29.3.        Write down the deformed position vector x of P, expressing your answer in terms of $\left(R,\Theta ,Z\right)$ and basis vectors $\left\{{e}_{R},{e}_{\Theta },{e}_{Z}\right\}$.

2.1.29.4.        Find the components of the deformation gradient tensor F in $\left\{{e}_{R},{e}_{\Theta },{e}_{Z}\right\}$.  (Recall that the gradient operator in cylindrical-polar coordinates is $\nabla \equiv \left({e}_{R}\frac{\partial }{\partial R}+{e}_{\Theta }\frac{1}{R}\frac{\partial }{\partial \Theta }+{e}_{Z}\frac{\partial }{\partial Z}\right)$; recall also that $\frac{\partial {e}_{R}}{\partial \Theta }={e}_{\Theta };\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\frac{\partial {e}_{\Theta }}{\partial \Theta }=-{e}_{R}$ )

2.1.29.5.        Show that the deformation gradient can be decomposed into a sequence $F=R\cdot S$ of a simple shear $S$ followed by a rigid rotation through angle $\varphi$ about the ${e}_{Z}$ direction R.  In this case the simple shear deformation will have the form

$S={e}_{R}{e}_{R}+{e}_{\Theta }{e}_{\Theta }+{e}_{Z}{e}_{Z}+k{e}_{\Theta }{e}_{R}$

where $k$ is to be determined.

2.1.29.6.        Find the components of F in $\left\{{e}_{r},{e}_{\theta },{e}_{z}\right\}$.

2.1.29.7.        Verify that the deformation is volume preserving (i.e. check the value of J=det(F))

2.1.29.8.        Find the components of the right Cauchy-Green deformation tensors in $\left\{{e}_{R},{e}_{\Theta },{e}_{Z}\right\}$

2.1.29.9.        Find the components of the left Cauchy-Green deformation tensor in $\left\{{e}_{r},{e}_{\theta },{e}_{z}\right\}$

2.1.29.10.    Find ${F}^{-1}$ in $\left\{{e}_{R},{e}_{\Theta },{e}_{Z}\right\}$

2.1.29.11.    Find the principal values of the stretch tensor U

2.1.29.12.    Write down the velocity field v in terms of $\left(r,\theta ,z\right)$ in the basis $\left\{{e}_{r},{e}_{\theta },{e}_{z}\right\}$

2.1.29.13.    Calculate the spatial velocity gradient L in the basis $\left\{{e}_{r},{e}_{\theta },{e}_{z}\right\}$