Problems for Chapter 3

 

Constitutive Models: Relations between Stress and Strain

 

 

 

3.11.    Critical State Soils

 

 

3.11.1.  A drained specimen of a soil can be idealized as Cam-clay, using the constitutive equations listed in Section 3.11.  At time t=0 the soil has a strength a 0 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaebbnrfifHhDYfgasaacH8rk0le9 v8qqaqFD0xXdHaVhbbf9v8qqaqFr0xc9pk0xbba9q8WqFfea0=yr0R Yxir=Jbba9q8aq0=yq=He9q8qqQ8frFve9Fve9Ff0dmeaabaqaciGa caGaaeqabaGadeaadaaakeaacaWGHbWaaSbaaSqaaiaaicdaaeqaaa aa@3492@ . The specimen is subjected to a monotonically increasing hydrostatic stress p, and the volumetric strain ΔV/V= ε kk MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaebbnrfifHhDYfgasaacH8rk0le9 v8qqaqFD0xXdHaVhbbf9v8qqaqFr0xc9pk0xbba9q8WqFfea0=yr0R Yxir=Jbba9q8aq0=yq=He9q8qqQ8frFve9Fve9Ff0dmeaabaqaciGa caGaaeqabaGadeaadaaakeaacqqHuoarcaWGwbGaai4laiaadAfacq GH9aqpcqaH1oqzdaWgaaWcbaGaam4AaiaadUgaaeqaaaaa@3B4E@  is measured.  Calculate a relationship between the pressure and volumetric strain, in terms of the initial strength of the soil a 0 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaebbnrfifHhDYfgasaacH8rk0le9 v8qqaqFD0xXdHaVhbbf9v8qqaqFr0xc9pk0xbba9q8WqFfea0=yr0R Yxir=Jbba9q8aq0=yq=He9q8qqQ8frFve9Fve9Ff0dmeaabaqaciGa caGaaeqabaGadeaadaaakeaacaWGHbWaaSbaaSqaaiaaicdaaeqaaa aa@3492@  and the hardening rate c.

 

 

 

3.11.2.  An undrained specimen of a soil can be idealized as Cam-clay, using the constitutive equations listed in Section 3.11.  The elastic constants of the soil are characterized by its bulk modulus K and Poisson’s ratio ν MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaebbnrfifHhDYfgasaacH8rk0le9 v8qqaqFD0xXdHaVhbbf9v8qqaqFr0xc9pk0xbba9q8WqFfea0=yr0R Yxir=Jbba9q8aq0=yq=He9q8qqQ8frFve9Fve9Ff0dmeaabaqaciGa caGaaeqabaGadeaadaaakeaacqaH9oGBaaa@347E@ , while its plastic properties are characterized by M and c.  The fluid has a bulk modulus K w MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaebbnrfifHhDYfgasaacH8rk0le9 v8qqaqFD0xXdHaVhbbf9v8qqaqFr0xc9pk0xbba9q8WqFfea0=yr0R Yxir=Jbba9q8aq0=yq=He9q8qqQ8frFve9Fve9Ff0dmeaabaqaciGa caGaaeqabaGadeaadaaakeaacaWGlbWaaSbaaSqaaiaadEhaaeqaaa aa@34BE@ . At time t=0 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaebbnrfifHhDYfgasaacH8rk0le9 v8qqaqFD0xXdHaVhbbf9v8qqaqFr0xc9pk0xbba9q8WqFfea0=yr0R Yxir=Jbba9q8aq0=yq=He9q8qqQ8frFve9Fve9Ff0dmeaabaqaciGa caGaaeqabaGadeaadaaakeaacaWG0bGaeyypa0JaaGimaaaa@357F@  the soil has a cavity volume fraction n 0 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaebbnrfifHhDYfgasaacH8rk0le9 v8qqaqFD0xXdHaVhbbf9v8qqaqFr0xc9pk0xbba9q8WqFfea0=yr0R Yxir=Jbba9q8aq0=yq=He9q8qqQ8frFve9Fve9Ff0dmeaabaqaciGa caGaaeqabaGadeaadaaakeaacaWGUbWaaSbaaSqaaiaaicdaaeqaaa aa@349F@  and strength a 0 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaebbnrfifHhDYfgasaacH8rk0le9 v8qqaqFD0xXdHaVhbbf9v8qqaqFr0xc9pk0xbba9q8WqFfea0=yr0R Yxir=Jbba9q8aq0=yq=He9q8qqQ8frFve9Fve9Ff0dmeaabaqaciGa caGaaeqabaGadeaadaaakeaacaWGHbWaaSbaaSqaaiaaicdaaeqaaa aa@3492@ , and p s = p w =0 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaebbnrfifHhDYfgasaacH8rk0le9 v8qqaqFD0xXdHaVhbbf9v8qqaqFr0xc9pk0xbba9q8WqFfea0=yr0R Yxir=Jbba9q8aq0=yq=He9q8qqQ8frFve9Fve9Ff0dmeaabaqaciGa caGaaeqabaGadeaadaaakeaacaWGWbWaaSbaaSqaaiaadohaaeqaaO Gaeyypa0JaamiCamaaBaaaleaacaWG3baabeaakiabg2da9iaaicda aaa@39D6@ . The specimen is subjected to a monotonically increasing hydrostatic pressure p, and is then unloaded. The volumetric strain ΔV/V= ε kk MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaebbnrfifHhDYfgasaacH8rk0le9 v8qqaqFD0xXdHaVhbbf9v8qqaqFr0xc9pk0xbba9q8WqFfea0=yr0R Yxir=Jbba9q8aq0=yq=He9q8qqQ8frFve9Fve9Ff0dmeaabaqaciGa caGaaeqabaGadeaadaaakeaacqqHuoarcaWGwbGaai4laiaadAfacq GH9aqpcqaH1oqzdaWgaaWcbaGaam4AaiaadUgaaeqaaaaa@3B4E@  is measured. Assume that both elastic and plastic strains are small.  Show that the relationship between the normalized pressure p/ a 0 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaebbnrfifHhDYfgasaacH8rk0le9 v8qqaqFD0xXdHaVhbbf9v8qqaqFr0xc9pk0xbba9q8WqFfea0=yr0R Yxir=Jbba9q8aq0=yq=He9q8qqQ8frFve9Fve9Ff0dmeaabaqaciGa caGaaeqabaGadeaadaaakeaacaWGWbGaai4laiaadggadaWgaaWcba GaaGimaaqabaaaaa@363A@  and normalized volumetric strain K ε kk / a 0 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaebbnrfifHhDYfgasaacH8rk0le9 v8qqaqFD0xXdHaVhbbf9v8qqaqFr0xc9pk0xbba9q8WqFfea0=yr0R Yxir=Jbba9q8aq0=yq=He9q8qqQ8frFve9Fve9Ff0dmeaabaqaciGa caGaaeqabaGadeaadaaakeaacaWGlbGaeqyTdu2aaSbaaSqaaiaadU gacaWGRbaabeaakiaac+cacaWGHbWaaSbaaSqaaiaaicdaaeqaaaaa @39D2@  is a function of only three dimensionless material properties: α= K w / a 0 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaebbnrfifHhDYfgasaacH8rk0le9 v8qqaqFD0xXdHaVhbbf9v8qqaqFr0xc9pk0xbba9q8WqFfea0=yr0R Yxir=Jbba9q8aq0=yq=He9q8qqQ8frFve9Fve9Ff0dmeaabaqaciGa caGaaeqabaGadeaadaaakeaacqaHXoqycqGH9aqpcaWGlbWaaSbaaS qaaiaadEhaaeqaaOGaai4laiaadggadaWgaaWcbaGaaGimaaqabaaa aa@39EC@ , β=K/ a 0 c MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaebbnrfifHhDYfgasaacH8rk0le9 v8qqaqFD0xXdHaVhbbf9v8qqaqFr0xc9pk0xbba9q8WqFfea0=yr0R Yxir=Jbba9q8aq0=yq=He9q8qqQ8frFve9Fve9Ff0dmeaabaqaciGa caGaaeqabaGadeaadaaakeaacqaHYoGycqGH9aqpcaWGlbGaai4lai aadggadaWgaaWcbaGaaGimaaqabaGccaWGJbaaaa@39AE@  and γ= n 0 c MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaebbnrfifHhDYfgasaacH8rk0le9 v8qqaqFD0xXdHaVhbbf9v8qqaqFr0xc9pk0xbba9q8WqFfea0=yr0R Yxir=Jbba9q8aq0=yq=He9q8qqQ8frFve9Fve9Ff0dmeaabaqaciGa caGaaeqabaGadeaadaaakeaacqaHZoWzcqGH9aqpcaWGUbWaaSbaaS qaaiaaicdaaeqaaOGaam4yaaaa@383E@ .  Plot the dimensionless pressure-volume curves (showing both the elastic and plastic parts of the loading cycle for a few representative values of α MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaebbnrfifHhDYfgasaacH8rk0le9 v8qqaqFD0xXdHaVhbbf9v8qqaqFr0xc9pk0xbba9q8WqFfea0=yr0R Yxir=Jbba9q8aq0=yq=He9q8qqQ8frFve9Fve9Ff0dmeaabaqaciGa caGaaeqabaGadeaadaaakeaacqaHXoqyaaa@3465@ , β MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaebbnrfifHhDYfgasaacH8rk0le9 v8qqaqFD0xXdHaVhbbf9v8qqaqFr0xc9pk0xbba9q8WqFfea0=yr0R Yxir=Jbba9q8aq0=yq=He9q8qqQ8frFve9Fve9Ff0dmeaabaqaciGa caGaaeqabaGadeaadaaakeaacqaHYoGyaaa@3467@  and γ MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaebbnrfifHhDYfgasaacH8rk0le9 v8qqaqFD0xXdHaVhbbf9v8qqaqFr0xc9pk0xbba9q8WqFfea0=yr0R Yxir=Jbba9q8aq0=yq=He9q8qqQ8frFve9Fve9Ff0dmeaabaqaciGa caGaaeqabaGadeaadaaakeaacqaHZoWzaaa@346D@ .

 

 

 

3.11.3.  A drained specimen of Cam-clay is first subjected to a monotonically increasing confining pressure p, with maximum value p> a 0 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaebbnrfifHhDYfgasaacH8rk0le9 v8qqaqFD0xXdHaVhbbf9v8qqaqFr0xc9pk0xbba9q8WqFfea0=yr0R Yxir=Jbba9q8aq0=yq=He9q8qqQ8frFve9Fve9Ff0dmeaabaqaciGa caGaaeqabaGadeaadaaakeaacaWGWbGaeyOpa4JaamyyamaaBaaale aacaaIWaaabeaaaaa@368F@ .   The confining pressure is then held constant, and the specimen is subjected to a monotonically increasing shear stress q.   Calculate the volumetric strain ε kk p MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaebbnrfifHhDYfgasaacH8rk0le9 v8qqaqFD0xXdHaVhbbf9v8qqaqFr0xc9pk0xbba9q8WqFfea0=yr0R Yxir=Jbba9q8aq0=yq=He9q8qqQ8frFve9Fve9Ff0dmeaabaqaciGa caGaaeqabaGadeaadaaakeaacqaH1oqzdaqhaaWcbaGaam4AaiaadU gaaeaacaWGWbaaaaaa@376F@  and the shear strain ε 12 p MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaebbnrfifHhDYfgasaacH8rk0le9 v8qqaqFD0xXdHaVhbbf9v8qqaqFr0xc9pk0xbba9q8WqFfea0=yr0R Yxir=Jbba9q8aq0=yq=He9q8qqQ8frFve9Fve9Ff0dmeaabaqaciGa caGaaeqabaGadeaadaaakeaacqaH1oqzdaqhaaWcbaGaaGymaiaaik daaeaacaWGWbaaaaaa@3706@  during the shear loading as a function of q and appropriate material properties, and plot the resulting shear stress-shear strain and volumetric strain-shear strain curves as indicated in the figure.