Problems for Chapter 4

 

Solution to Simple Problems

 

 

 

4.1.  Axially and Spherically Symmetric Solutions for Elastic Solids

 

 

4.1.1.      A solid cylindrical bar with radius a and length L is subjected to a uniform pressure p MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaebbnrfifHhDYfgasaacH8sk0le9 v8qqaqFD0xXdHaVhbbf9v8qqaqFr0xc9pk0xbba9q8WqFfea0=yr0R Yxir=Jbba9q8aq0=yq=He9q8qqQ8frFve9Fve9Ff0dmeaabaqaciGa caGaaeqabaGadeaadaaakeaacaWGWbaaaa@33CB@  on its ends.  The bar is made from a linear elastic solid with Young’s modulus E MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaebbnrfifHhDYfgasaacH8sk0le9 v8qqaqFD0xXdHaVhbbf9v8qqaqFr0xc9pk0xbba9q8WqFfea0=yr0R Yxir=Jbba9q8aq0=yq=He9q8qqQ8frFve9Fve9Ff0dmeaabaqaciGa caGaaeqabaGadeaadaaakeaacaWGfbaaaa@33A0@  and Poisson’s ratio ν MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaebbnrfifHhDYfgasaacH8sk0le9 v8qqaqFD0xXdHaVhbbf9v8qqaqFr0xc9pk0xbba9q8WqFfea0=yr0R Yxir=Jbba9q8aq0=yq=He9q8qqQ8frFve9Fve9Ff0dmeaabaqaciGa caGaaeqabaGadeaadaaakeaacqaH9oGBaaa@348E@ .

4.1.1.1.            Write down the components of the stress in the bar.  Show that the stress satisfies the equation of static equilibrium, and the boundary conditions σ ij n i = t j MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaebbnrfifHhDYfgasaacH8sk0le9 v8qqaqFD0xXdHaVhbbf9v8qqaqFr0xc9pk0xbba9q8WqFfea0=yr0R Yxir=Jbba9q8aq0=yq=He9q8qqQ8frFve9Fve9Ff0dmeaabaqaciGa caGaaeqabaGadeaadaaakeaacqaHdpWCdaWgaaWcbaGaamyAaiaadQ gaaeqaaOGaamOBamaaBaaaleaacaWGPbaabeaakiabg2da9iaadsha daWgaaWcbaGaamOAaaqabaaaaa@3BDD@  on all its surfaces.  Express your answer as components in a Cartesian basis { e 1 , e 2 , e 3 } MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaebbnrfifHhDYfgasaacH8sk0le9 v8qqaqFD0xXdHaVhbbf9v8qqaqFr0xc9pk0xbba9q8WqFfea0=yr0R Yxir=Jbba9q8aq0=yq=He9q8qqQ8frFve9Fve9Ff0dmeaabaqaciGa caGaaeqabaGadeaadaaakeaacaGG7bGaaCyzamaaBaaaleaacaaIXa aabeaakiaacYcacaWHLbWaaSbaaSqaaiaaikdaaeqaaOGaaiilaiaa hwgadaWgaaWcbaGaaG4maaqabaGccaGG9baaaa@3BD6@  with e 1 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaebbnrfifHhDYfgasaacH8sk0le9 v8qqaqFD0xXdHaVhbbf9v8qqaqFr0xc9pk0xbba9q8WqFfea0=yr0R Yxir=Jbba9q8aq0=yq=He9q8qqQ8frFve9Fve9Ff0dmeaabaqaciGa caGaaeqabaGadeaadaaakeaacaWHLbWaaSbaaSqaaiaaigdaaeqaaa aa@34AB@  parallel to the axis of the cylinder.

4.1.1.2.            Find the strain in the bar (neglect temperature changes)

4.1.1.3.            Find the displacement field in the bar

4.1.1.4.            Calculate a formula for the change in length of the bar

4.1.1.5.            Find a formula for the stiffness of the bar (stiffness = force/extension)

4.1.1.6.            Find the change in volume of the bar

4.1.1.7.            Calculate the total strain energy in the bar.

 

 

4.1.2.      Elementary calculations predict that the stresses in a internally pressurized thin-walled sphere with radius R and wall thickness t<<R are σ θθ σ ϕϕ pR/2t σ rr p/2 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaebbnrfifHhDYfgasaacH8rk0le9 v8qqaqFD0xXdHaVhbbf9v8qqaqFr0xc9pk0xbba9q8WqFfea0=yr0R Yxir=Jbba9q8aq0=yq=He9q8qqQ8frFve9Fve9Ff0dmeaabaqaciGa caGaaeqabaGadeaadaaakeaacqaHdpWCdaWgaaWcbaGaeqiUdeNaeq iUdehabeaakiabgIKi7kabeo8aZnaaBaaaleaacqaHvpGzcqaHvpGz aeqaaOGaeyisISRaamiCaiaadkfacaGGVaGaaGOmaiaadshacaaMc8 UaaGPaVlaaykW7caaMc8UaaGPaVlaaykW7caaMc8Uaeq4Wdm3aaSba aSqaaiaadkhacaWGYbaabeaakiabgIKi7kaadchacaGGVaGaaGOmaa aa@5813@ .  Compare this estimate with the exact solution in Section 4.1.4.  To do this, set a=R[1t/(2R)]b=R[1+t/(2R)] MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaebbnrfifHhDYfgasaacH8rk0le9 v8qqaqFD0xXdHaVhbbf9v8qqaqFr0xc9pk0xbba9q8WqFfea0=yr0R Yxir=Jbba9q8aq0=yq=He9q8qqQ8frFve9Fve9Ff0dmeaabaqaciGa caGaaeqabaGadeaadaaakeaacaWGHbGaeyypa0JaamOuaiaacUfaca aIXaGaeyOeI0IaamiDaiaac+cacaGGOaGaaGOmaiaadkfacaGGPaGa aiyxaiaaykW7caaMc8UaaGPaVlaaykW7caaMc8UaamOyaiabg2da9i aadkfacaGGBbGaaGymaiabgUcaRiaadshacaGGVaGaaiikaiaaikda caWGsbGaaiykaiaac2faaaa@4FF9@  and expand the formulas for the stresses as a Taylor series in t/R.  Suggest an appropriate range of t/R for the thin-walled approximation to be accurate.

 

 

 

 

 

 

4.1.3.      A baseball can be idealized as a small rubber core with radius a, surrounded by a shell of yarn with outer radius b.  As a first approximation, assume that the yarn can be idealized as a linear elastic solid with Young’s modulus E s MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaebbnrfifHhDYfgasaacH8rk0le9 v8qqaqFD0xXdHaVhbbf9v8qqaqFr0xc9pk0xbba9q8WqFfea0=yr0R Yxir=Jbba9q8aq0=yq=He9q8qqQ8frFve9Fve9Ff0dmeaabaqaciGa caGaaeqabaGadeaadaaakeaacaWGfbWaaSbaaSqaaiaadohaaeqaaa aa@34B4@  and Poisson’s ration ν s MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaebbnrfifHhDYfgasaacH8rk0le9 v8qqaqFD0xXdHaVhbbf9v8qqaqFr0xc9pk0xbba9q8WqFfea0=yr0R Yxir=Jbba9q8aq0=yq=He9q8qqQ8frFve9Fve9Ff0dmeaabaqaciGa caGaaeqabaGadeaadaaakeaacqaH9oGBdaWgaaWcbaGaam4Caaqaba aaaa@35A2@ , while the core can be idealized as an incompressible material.  Suppose that ball is subjected to a uniform pressure p on its outer surface.  Note that, if the core is incompressible, its outer radius cannot change, and therefore the radial displacement u R =0 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaebbnrfifHhDYfgasaacH8rk0le9 v8qqaqFD0xXdHaVhbbf9v8qqaqFr0xc9pk0xbba9q8WqFfea0=yr0R Yxir=Jbba9q8aq0=yq=He9q8qqQ8frFve9Fve9Ff0dmeaabaqaciGa caGaaeqabaGadeaadaaakeaacaWG1bWaaSbaaSqaaiaadkfaaeqaaO Gaeyypa0JaaGimaaaa@368D@  at R=a MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaebbnrfifHhDYfgasaacH8rk0le9 v8qqaqFD0xXdHaVhbbf9v8qqaqFr0xc9pk0xbba9q8WqFfea0=yr0R Yxir=Jbba9q8aq0=yq=He9q8qqQ8frFve9Fve9Ff0dmeaabaqaciGa caGaaeqabaGadeaadaaakeaacaWGsbGaeyypa0Jaamyyaaaa@3589@ .  Calculate the full displacement and stress fields in the yarn in terms of p and relevant geometric variables and material properties.

 

 

 

4.1.4.      Reconsider problem 3, but this time assume that the core is to be idealized as a linear elastic solid with Young’s modulus E c MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaebbnrfifHhDYfgasaacH8rk0le9 v8qqaqFD0xXdHaVhbbf9v8qqaqFr0xc9pk0xbba9q8WqFfea0=yr0R Yxir=Jbba9q8aq0=yq=He9q8qqQ8frFve9Fve9Ff0dmeaabaqaciGa caGaaeqabaGadeaadaaakeaacaWGfbWaaSbaaSqaaiaadogaaeqaaa aa@34A4@  and Poisson’s ration ν c MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaebbnrfifHhDYfgasaacH8rk0le9 v8qqaqFD0xXdHaVhbbf9v8qqaqFr0xc9pk0xbba9q8WqFfea0=yr0R Yxir=Jbba9q8aq0=yq=He9q8qqQ8frFve9Fve9Ff0dmeaabaqaciGa caGaaeqabaGadeaadaaakeaacqaH9oGBdaWgaaWcbaGaam4yaaqaba aaaa@3592@ .  Give expressions for the displacement and stress fields in both the core and the outer shell.

 

 

 

4.1.5.      Suppose that an elastic sphere, with outer radius a+Δ MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaebbnrfifHhDYfgasaacH8rk0le9 v8qqaqFD0xXdHaVhbbf9v8qqaqFr0xc9pk0xbba9q8WqFfea0=yr0R Yxir=Jbba9q8aq0=yq=He9q8qqQ8frFve9Fve9Ff0dmeaabaqaciGa caGaaeqabaGadeaadaaakeaacaWGHbGaey4kaSIaeuiLdqeaaa@35F4@ , and with Young’s modulus E MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaebbnrfifHhDYfgasaacH8rk0le9 v8qqaqFD0xXdHaVhbbf9v8qqaqFr0xc9pk0xbba9q8WqFfea0=yr0R Yxir=Jbba9q8aq0=yq=He9q8qqQ8frFve9Fve9Ff0dmeaabaqaciGa caGaaeqabaGadeaadaaakeaacaWGfbaaaa@3390@  and Poisson’s ratio ν MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaebbnrfifHhDYfgasaacH8rk0le9 v8qqaqFD0xXdHaVhbbf9v8qqaqFr0xc9pk0xbba9q8WqFfea0=yr0R Yxir=Jbba9q8aq0=yq=He9q8qqQ8frFve9Fve9Ff0dmeaabaqaciGa caGaaeqabaGadeaadaaakeaacqaH9oGBaaa@347E@  is inserted into a spherical shell with identical elastic properties, but with inner radius a MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaebbnrfifHhDYfgasaacH8rk0le9 v8qqaqFD0xXdHaVhbbf9v8qqaqFr0xc9pk0xbba9q8WqFfea0=yr0R Yxir=Jbba9q8aq0=yq=He9q8qqQ8frFve9Fve9Ff0dmeaabaqaciGa caGaaeqabaGadeaadaaakeaacaWGHbaaaa@33AC@  and outer radius b MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaebbnrfifHhDYfgasaacH8rk0le9 v8qqaqFD0xXdHaVhbbf9v8qqaqFr0xc9pk0xbba9q8WqFfea0=yr0R Yxir=Jbba9q8aq0=yq=He9q8qqQ8frFve9Fve9Ff0dmeaabaqaciGa caGaaeqabaGadeaadaaakeaacaWGIbaaaa@33AD@ .  Assume that Δ<<a MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaebbnrfifHhDYfgasaacH8rk0le9 v8qqaqFD0xXdHaVhbbf9v8qqaqFr0xc9pk0xbba9q8WqFfea0=yr0R Yxir=Jbba9q8aq0=yq=He9q8qqQ8frFve9Fve9Ff0dmeaabaqaciGa caGaaeqabaGadeaadaaakeaacqqHuoarcqGH8aapcqGH8aapcaWGHb aaaa@371A@  so that the deformation can be analyzed using linear elasticity theory.   Calculate the stress and displacement fields in both the core and the outer shell.

 

 

 

4.1.6.      A spherical planet with outer radius a has a radial variation in its density that can be described as

ρ(R)= ρ 0 a 2 /( a 2 + R 2 ) MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaebbnrfifHhDYfgasaacH8rk0le9 v8qqaqFD0xXdHaVhbbf9v8qqaqFr0xc9pk0xbba9q8WqFfea0=yr0R Yxir=Jbba9q8aq0=yq=He9q8qqQ8frFve9Fve9Ff0dmeaabaqaciGa caGaaeqabaGadeaadaaakeaacqaHbpGCcaGGOaGaamOuaiaacMcacq GH9aqpcqaHbpGCdaWgaaWcbaGaaGimaaqabaGccaWGHbWaaWbaaSqa beaacaaIYaaaaOGaai4laiaacIcacaWGHbWaaWbaaSqabeaacaaIYa aaaOGaey4kaSIaamOuamaaCaaaleqabaGaaGOmaaaakiaacMcaaaa@42D6@

As a result, the interior of the solid is subjected to a radial body force field

b= ga R(1π/4) ( 1 a R tan 1 R a ) e r MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaebbnrfifHhDYfgasaacH8rk0le9 v8qqaqFD0xXdHaVhbbf9v8qqaqFr0xc9pk0xbba9q8WqFfea0=yr0R Yxir=Jbba9q8aq0=yq=He9q8qqQ8frFve9Fve9Ff0dmeaabaqaciGa caGaaeqabaGadeaadaaakeaacaWHIbGaeyypa0JaeyOeI0YaaSaaae aacaWGNbGaamyyaaqaaiaadkfacaGGOaGaaGymaiabgkHiTiabec8a Wjaac+cacaaI0aGaaiykaaaadaqadaqaaiaaigdacqGHsisldaWcaa qaaiaadggaaeaacaWGsbaaaiGacshacaGGHbGaaiOBamaaCaaaleqa baGaeyOeI0IaaGymaaaakmaalaaabaGaamOuaaqaaiaadggaaaaaca GLOaGaayzkaaGaaCyzamaaBaaaleaacaWGYbaabeaaaaa@4C18@

where g is the acceleration due to gravity at the surface of the sphere.  Assume that the planet can be idealized as a linear elastic solid with Young’s modulus E MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaebbnrfifHhDYfgasaacH8rk0le9 v8qqaqFD0xXdHaVhbbf9v8qqaqFr0xc9pk0xbba9q8WqFfea0=yr0R Yxir=Jbba9q8aq0=yq=He9q8qqQ8frFve9Fve9Ff0dmeaabaqaciGa caGaaeqabaGadeaadaaakeaacaWGfbaaaa@3390@  and Poisson’s ratio ν MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaebbnrfifHhDYfgasaacH8rk0le9 v8qqaqFD0xXdHaVhbbf9v8qqaqFr0xc9pk0xbba9q8WqFfea0=yr0R Yxir=Jbba9q8aq0=yq=He9q8qqQ8frFve9Fve9Ff0dmeaabaqaciGa caGaaeqabaGadeaadaaakeaacqaH9oGBaaa@347E@ .  Calculate the displacement and stress fields in the solid.  

 

 

 

4.1.7.      A solid, spherical nuclear fuel pellet with outer radius a MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaebbnrfifHhDYfgasaacH8rk0le9 v8qqaqFD0xXdHaVhbbf9v8qqaqFr0xc9pk0xbba9q8WqFfea0=yr0R Yxir=Jbba9q8aq0=yq=He9q8qqQ8frFve9Fve9Ff0dmeaabaqaciGa caGaaeqabaGadeaadaaakeaacaWGHbaaaa@33AC@  is subjected to a uniform internal distribution of heat due to a nuclear reaction. The heating induces a steady-state temperature field

T(r)=( T a T 0 ) r 2 a 2 + T 0 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaebbnrfifHhDYfgasaacH8rk0le9 v8qqaqFD0xXdHaVhbbf9v8qqaqFr0xc9pk0xbba9q8WqFfea0=yr0R Yxir=Jbba9q8aq0=yq=He9q8qqQ8frFve9Fve9Ff0dmeaabaqaciGa caGaaeqabaGadeaadaaakeaacaWGubGaaiikaiaadkhacaGGPaGaey ypa0ZaaeWaaeaacaWGubWaaSbaaSqaaiaadggaaeqaaOGaeyOeI0Ia amivamaaBaaaleaacaaIWaaabeaaaOGaayjkaiaawMcaamaalaaaba GaamOCamaaCaaaleqabaGaaGOmaaaaaOqaaiaadggadaahaaWcbeqa aiaaikdaaaaaaOGaey4kaSIaamivamaaBaaaleaacaaIWaaabeaaaa a@439D@

where T 0 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaebbnrfifHhDYfgasaacH8rk0le9 v8qqaqFD0xXdHaVhbbf9v8qqaqFr0xc9pk0xbba9q8WqFfea0=yr0R Yxir=Jbba9q8aq0=yq=He9q8qqQ8frFve9Fve9Ff0dmeaabaqaciGa caGaaeqabaGadeaadaaakeaacaWGubWaaSbaaSqaaiaaicdaaeqaaa aa@3485@  and T a MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaebbnrfifHhDYfgasaacH8rk0le9 v8qqaqFD0xXdHaVhbbf9v8qqaqFr0xc9pk0xbba9q8WqFfea0=yr0R Yxir=Jbba9q8aq0=yq=He9q8qqQ8frFve9Fve9Ff0dmeaabaqaciGa caGaaeqabaGadeaadaaakeaacaWGubWaaSbaaSqaaiaadggaaeqaaa aa@34B1@  are the temperatures at the center and outer surface of the pellet, respectively.  Assume that the pellet can be idealized as a linear elastic solid with Young’s modulus E MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaebbnrfifHhDYfgasaacH8rk0le9 v8qqaqFD0xXdHaVhbbf9v8qqaqFr0xc9pk0xbba9q8WqFfea0=yr0R Yxir=Jbba9q8aq0=yq=He9q8qqQ8frFve9Fve9Ff0dmeaabaqaciGa caGaaeqabaGadeaadaaakeaacaWGfbaaaa@3390@ , Poisson’s ratio ν MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaebbnrfifHhDYfgasaacH8rk0le9 v8qqaqFD0xXdHaVhbbf9v8qqaqFr0xc9pk0xbba9q8WqFfea0=yr0R Yxir=Jbba9q8aq0=yq=He9q8qqQ8frFve9Fve9Ff0dmeaabaqaciGa caGaaeqabaGadeaadaaakeaacqaH9oGBaaa@347E@  and thermal expansion coefficient α MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaebbnrfifHhDYfgasaacH8rk0le9 v8qqaqFD0xXdHaVhbbf9v8qqaqFr0xc9pk0xbba9q8WqFfea0=yr0R Yxir=Jbba9q8aq0=yq=He9q8qqQ8frFve9Fve9Ff0dmeaabaqaciGa caGaaeqabaGadeaadaaakeaacqaHXoqyaaa@3465@ .  Calculate the distribution of stress in the pellet.

 

 

 

4.1.8.      A long cylindrical pipe with inner radius a and outer radius b has hot fluid with temperature T a MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaebbnrfifHhDYfgasaacH8sk0le9 v8qqaqFD0xXdHaVhbbf9v8qqaqFr0xc9pk0xbba9q8WqFfea0=yr0R Yxir=Jbba9q8aq0=yq=He9q8qqQ8frFve9Fve9Ff0dmeaabaqaciGa caGaaeqabaGadeaadaaakeaacaWGubWaaSbaaSqaaiaadggaaeqaaa aa@34C1@  flowing through it.  The outer surface of the pipe has temperature T b MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaebbnrfifHhDYfgasaacH8sk0le9 v8qqaqFD0xXdHaVhbbf9v8qqaqFr0xc9pk0xbba9q8WqFfea0=yr0R Yxir=Jbba9q8aq0=yq=He9q8qqQ8frFve9Fve9Ff0dmeaabaqaciGa caGaaeqabaGadeaadaaakeaacaWGubWaaSbaaSqaaiaadkgaaeqaaa aa@34C2@ .  The inner and outer surfaces of the pipe are traction free.  Assume plane strain deformation, with ε zz =0 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaebbnrfifHhDYfgasaacH8rk0le9 v8qqaqFD0xXdHaVhbbf9v8qqaqFr0xc9pk0xbba9q8WqFfea0=yr0R Yxir=Jbba9q8aq0=yq=He9q8qqQ8frFve9Fve9Ff0dmeaabaqaciGa caGaaeqabaGadeaadaaakeaacqaH1oqzdaWgaaWcbaGaamOEaiaadQ haaeqaaOGaeyypa0JaaGimaaaa@3861@ .  In addition, assume that the temperature distribution in the pipe is given by

T(r)= T a log(r/b) T b log(r/a) log(a/b) MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaebbnrfifHhDYfgasaacH8rk0le9 v8qqaqFD0xXdHaVhbbf9v8qqaqFr0xc9pk0xbba9q8WqFfea0=yr0R Yxir=Jbba9q8aq0=yq=He9q8qqQ8frFve9Fve9Ff0dmeaabaqaciGa caGaaeqabaGadeaadaaakeaacaWGubGaaiikaiaadkhacaGGPaGaey ypa0ZaaSaaaeaacaWGubWaaSbaaSqaaiaadggaaeqaaOGaciiBaiaa c+gacaGGNbGaaiikaiaadkhacaGGVaGaamOyaiaacMcacqGHsislca WGubWaaSbaaSqaaiaadkgaaeqaaOGaciiBaiaac+gacaGGNbGaaiik aiaadkhacaGGVaGaamyyaiaacMcaaeaaciGGSbGaai4BaiaacEgaca GGOaGaamyyaiaac+cacaWGIbGaaiykaaaaaaa@4FF9@

4.1.8.1.            Calculate the stress components σ rr , σ θθ , σ zz MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaebbnrfifHhDYfgasaacH8rk0le9 v8qqaqFD0xXdHaVhbbf9v8qqaqFr0xc9pk0xbba9q8WqFfea0=yr0R Yxir=Jbba9q8aq0=yq=He9q8qqQ8frFve9Fve9Ff0dmeaabaqaciGa caGaaeqabaGadeaadaaakeaacqaHdpWCdaWgaaWcbaGaamOCaiaadk haaeqaaOGaaiilaiabeo8aZnaaBaaaleaacqaH4oqCcqaH4oqCaeqa aOGaaiilaiabeo8aZnaaBaaaleaacaWG6bGaamOEaaqabaaaaa@415F@  in the pipe.

4.1.8.2.            Find a formula for the variation of Von-Mises stress

σ e = 1 2 { ( σ 1 σ 2 ) 2 + ( σ 1 σ 3 ) 2 + ( σ 2 σ 3 ) 2 } MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaebbnrfifHhDYfgasaacH8rk0le9 v8qqaqFD0xXdHaVhbbf9v8qqaqFr0xc9pk0xbba9q8WqFfea0=yr0R Yxir=Jbba9q8aq0=yq=He9q8qqQ8frFve9Fve9Ff0dmeaabaqaciGa caGaaeqabaGadeaadaaakeaacqaHdpWCdaWgaaWcbaGaamyzaaqaba GccqGH9aqpdaGcaaqaamaalaaabaGaaGymaaqaaiaaikdaaaWaaiWa aeaadaqadaqaaiabeo8aZnaaBaaaleaacaaIXaaabeaakiabgkHiTi abeo8aZnaaBaaaleaacaaIYaaabeaaaOGaayjkaiaawMcaamaaCaaa leqabaGaaGOmaaaakiabgUcaRmaabmaabaGaeq4Wdm3aaSbaaSqaai aaigdaaeqaaOGaeyOeI0Iaeq4Wdm3aaSbaaSqaaiaaiodaaeqaaaGc caGLOaGaayzkaaWaaWbaaSqabeaacaaIYaaaaOGaey4kaSYaaeWaae aacqaHdpWCdaWgaaWcbaGaaGOmaaqabaGccqGHsislcqaHdpWCdaWg aaWcbaGaaG4maaqabaaakiaawIcacaGLPaaadaahaaWcbeqaaiaaik daaaaakiaawUhacaGL9baaaSqabaaaaa@56BF@

in the tube.  Where does the maximum value occur?

4.1.8.3.            The tube will yield if the von Mises stress reaches the yield stress of the material.  Calculate the critical temperature difference T a T b MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaebbnrfifHhDYfgasaacH8sk0le9 v8qqaqFD0xXdHaVhbbf9v8qqaqFr0xc9pk0xbba9q8WqFfea0=yr0R Yxir=Jbba9q8aq0=yq=He9q8qqQ8frFve9Fve9Ff0dmeaabaqaciGa caGaaeqabaGadeaadaaakeaacaWGubWaaSbaaSqaaiaadggaaeqaaO GaeyOeI0IaamivamaaBaaaleaacaWGIbaabeaaaaa@37A4@  that will cause yield in a mild steel pipe.